DIY 18650-cell battery-pack building KITS, five options for 2018

June 21, 2017
74176点意见

Recently, we have seen several kits for assembling a battery pack out of 18650 cells. Here are some examples, so you can see if that is something that might interest you. And remember, these aren’t just for ebikes, you can assemble any voltage or size you want, for any job you need a battery to power.


原始的大佬,班次

The Headway company makes cylindrical cells that use the Lithium-Iron-Phosphate chemistry (LiFePO4), which provides 3.2V per cell nominal. The other thing they are famous for is that their cells come from the factory with threaded studs on both ends of the cell. Also, their website provides all the parts to assemble a pack…including pre-cut metal bus-plates, and square plastic end-caps. I don’t know when they started this, but I wrote an article about a build that used these back in 2013, so this example of assembling a pack has been around since then, at the very least.

Headway pack building kit

海德威包建包。示出的模块是8S / 2P

Since this is clearly awesome (because you don’t have to solder or buy a spot-welder), then…why aren’t they more common?

Headway cells don’t come in a variety of sizes (there are only two), and the smallest one is the 38140. This means that they are 38mm in diameter and 120mm long…and that, my friend?…that is BIG. The 38120 cell is 10-Ah for one cell, so a 2P pack would be 20-Ah. Although 20-Ah is a good size of pack (that I very much approve of), the only shapes you can configure them in is usually a big fat rectangle.

To give you an idea about how large the “small” Headway cells are, here is a reproduction of a vintage boardtracker from Juicer ebikes. The Headway cells are the blue cylinders that make up the V-twin cylinders.

我们的朋友teklektik建立一个浴霸世界报长尾cargobike早在2012年,这些细胞,再加上“Juicer” board tracker ebikes have used the 38120,and also, here isa pic of a pack that was assembled to replace a 24V lead-acid pack on an electric wheelchair


Micah Toll’s pack-building kickstarter

We were excited to write about Micah’s kickstarter campaign. He realized that there were a lot of battery pack builders who didn’t want to buy a spot welder (commonly $300 or more for a very basic unit), but many of the home-builders were comfortable making the series connections with a fat wire and a soldering iron.

Micah Toll’s DIY battery pack building kit

他的想法是提供18650个细胞已经点焊在一起的并联模块。这样一来,没有了房屋建筑从大烙铁的热损伤细胞的危险。我们写了一篇文章上的18650细胞的内部结构的,我们发现,在正阴极可以采取大量的热量,但18650电池的负阳极是热损伤非常敏感。米迦的方法意味着房屋建筑将是焊接线到镍总线板,而不是直接在细胞上的提示。

尽管海地文职支助团系统是真棒,一些客户可能需要使用不同的细胞,或...也许他们想并联模块的不同的自定义配置...


Damien Rene pack-building spot-weld article

达米恩刘若英是在西班牙的电动自行车发烧友。我们的一个最一贯流行的文章是关于如何在一个he builds spot-welded battery packs for ebikes, found here。话虽这么说,最基本的点焊单元则可以从中国直接购买是SUNKKO 709A,它可以为大约$ 300在2017年被发现,即使为“合格”为模式,你可以在google搜索“SUNKKO失败”,并找到如何修复讨论线程和升级设备上的胆量。

从18650个细胞家用电动自行车内置电池

有18650细胞点焊模型比SUNKKO 709A更强大和可靠的,但是......他们的成本也超过$ 300。


通用18650塑料电池隔板/垫片

For a very long time, there has existed a plastic end-cap design that helps the pack-builder to assemble a pack. The “slot” on top of the cells is an 8mm wide alley, which is often filled with a 7mm wide ribbon of pure nickel (nickel bus-ribbon that is o.15mm or 0.20mm thick are the most common).

因为我发现,当我正在研究的18650格式的单元结构的文章,认为双方每18650细胞的底部是一个连续的导体(即:侧面和电池的底是带负电荷的)。这意味着…these plastic end-caps are very important。Vibration over the years can break through the PVC insulation-sleeve that comes over the sides of the cells, and a break right there will allow a short-circuit near the positive end.

积极的肩膀阴极附近的区域of the cell is the “danger zone”, and a compromise there is something that I call a “shoulder short” (the end with the white ring, in the pic below). It is VERY beneficial to add a self-adhesive fiber insulation washer to the positive end, and to use some type of plastic end-cap.

xxx

The common style of plastic end-cap

一旦你决定塑料端盖的可用模型,你怎么连接串联和并联每个单元?下面的PIC是一个共同的2S / 4P总线板。在该PIC,在镍母板上的四个垂直通路携带高系列电流。如果这些是10A细胞,然后四个垂直运行中的每一个进行,每10A,总共40A的整个包。

两个水平的途径携带并联电流,这仅因为它们充放电保持单元以相等的电压。它通常将小于图1A中,即使对于非常高功率的电池组。的唯一原因串联和并联通路具有相同的宽度和厚度上总线板的这种共同的风格,是... ...这样做使得快速和容易的激光切割的形状,并且所述镍是刚性的,足以增加一些结构刚性所得到的包。

To be clear, if you are charging your pack with a 5A charger, that 5-Amps is charging “in series” too, so…the parallel connections will only carry a tiny amount of balancing current, under all charging and discharging conditions.

xxx

A 2S /4P battery pack series / parallel bus-plate. The top row of cells have their positive ends up, and the bottom row of four has the negative ends up…Remember! the entire sides of all 18650 cells are charged with the negative end. That is why battery pack builders add the dark gray felt washers to the positive ends! (seen on the top row). The slot above each cell helps the spot-welding to be more consistent at a lower energy level. If the current can simply pass across the nickel strip, very little energy passes through the cell-end to weld them to the nickel bus, so it takes much higher energy levels, and results in much more heat than necessary.

事实上,镍是不是一个伟大的指挥家。它仅用于两个主要原因。I ‘would’ state that it has very strong anti-corrosion characteristics, but…nickel-plating over copper bus-plates [or aluminum] has the same corrosion protection, and that composition would conduct better and costs less (nickel is expensive, and getting pricier each year). The first reason is that…pure nickel is stiff, and provides some structural strength, while copper or aluminum is malleable (soft and easily bendable).

The second reason is that pure nickel [as a bus material] will spot-weld quite easily and very fast, which helps the assembly-line move along rapidly. Although many packs are still spot-welded in China one cell at a time by a person, the trend is to have robots spot-weld a pack together very rapidly.

请注意,位于上方在上述PIC每个单元槽。电电流流动将采取“阻力最小的路径”,并且这意味着,...如果包含在所述小区中的狭槽,然后大部分的点焊电脉冲被强制穿过所述单元的结束,而不是如果镍色带没有这种槽的刚通过总线板传递(从一个焊接探针到另一个),这是会发生什么。这提供了更一致的结果,当点焊细胞总线板。

Personally, I am a fan of the “honeycomb” configuration, over the now common rectangular “rank and file” shape (shown above). For roughly the same volume of battery pack, the honeycomb layout provides more air-flow between each cell. Whether you are trusting in passive heat-shedding, or a pro-active fan-cooling system…if you have a more consistent air-flow envelope around each cell? It will help each cell to shed any of the heat that develops.


NESE模块,从Agniusm

The endless-sphere forum member “Agniusm” is a very smart enthusiast from Lithuania. I am posting his “NESE” modules first because…the 6P modules have been tested at 80A (13A per cell), and the bus-strips only warmed to 30C / 86F.

这里是一个4P模块(四个单元并行地)。您可以指定一个密闭的容器中强调耐水性,或帮助一个镂空容器散出的热量。

This business model recognizes that any new clever design can be copied and produced very cheaply in China, so…rather than create the modules himself and ship them around the world…he provides the design code for free, so each builder can have them produced locally from a 3D printer service. The difficult part that he does provide for the customers is…the metal 6P bus-plates, which can be trimmed-down to fit in any of the other sizes of case, along with the Poron foam backing (6P, 5P, 4P, 3P, 2P, etc).

The size of the module is determined by the design file used to 3D-print it up, and the color is determined by the plastic filament used on the 3D printer.

金属总线选项卡是0.60毫米厚(0.023英寸),并且它们由铜制成,然后镀锌用于耐腐蚀保护(如下所示的早期版本是有光泽的镍板,但镍裂化当总线标签端部拉被弯曲,以便与连接器螺杆相配合,所以现在...电镀是锌)。最常见的镍带是点焊商业包是0.20毫米厚,所以......这些都是较厚的三倍,也由铜制成。

充当导体此峰示出了金属总线条到小区端部连接。细黑背衬是PORON泡沫,这有助于保持总线后面的压力。还要注意,被插入到塑料槽中的方形金属螺母,从而使连接螺钉有一些固体附加到。这种设计安排被称为“固定螺母”。我彻底批准被插入3D印刷塑料外壳圈养正方形金属坚果。

因为将会有热膨胀/冷收缩少量...某种类型的“弹簧”需要被使用,以占据任何松弛,所以电连接被保持具有一致的压缩压力。这些模块使用薄的黑“PORON”弹性体背衬,以保持对汇流条的压力。起初我持怀疑态度,但我的研究验证该PORON在这个应用程序中使用了优异的长期材料。

下面示出了两个模块被并联,以增加安培小时,在剩余的4.1V而当完全充电的照片(每个细胞4.1V要好得多,使用寿命长,相比于普通4.2V)。下面所示的4P版本具有三个径向槽,使一个方便的地方键一对具有拉链关系模块。

Here are two 4P modules configured as an 8P group. The black “zip tie” shown is an easy and affordable way to attach several modules together.

这里是一个PIC(下图),示出了“横向”组件,这PIC示出了“10个模块系列”(10S)包,其通常被认为是36V。如果您使用这些6P模块与3500毫安细胞,示出将是(6×3.5 =)21-阿包。

Beneath the orange 3D-printed protective insulating caps, these modules shown below are connected positive-to-negative in order to “series” them into the desired voltage. Do your home work, and exercise caution!

使用这些3D印刷塑料模块当一个10S / 6P包的例子。

有许多DIY选项,并且在下面的PIC中所示的包装的例子是一个“纵向”组件。

下面是这些模块中的一个纵向取向的例子。示出的包是16S / 6P

你可以找到他的这些3D打印模块的网站,在这里


Vruzend套件

The Vruzend kit adds plastic cell-end caps to each end of a cell, and each cap has a metal contact inside, along with a tiny bolt that extends out to create a threaded stud for attaching bus strips.

The standard Vruzend plastic end-cap set from India.

这样可以启发它以前的风格,每个盖帽对他们的边槽和突起,可以连接到对方。

下面是这种风格的“可配置”的一个例子。

The pic below shows one Vruzend cap cut open, and the metal contact has been removed to show its exact shape. It is a “corrosion-resistant” stainless steel, and it acts as a “leaf spring” that has a “C” shape. It also performs the duty of being the conductor, so these are limited to 3.5A each. A future version may have a copper foil overlay to provide a higher-amp version, but those are not available yet.

The basic model of Vruzend cell end-cap.

正如可以看到,这使得组装包出18650格式细胞的容易得多,相比焊接(其可以从过多的热量会损坏细胞的内部),或者...使用昂贵的和不可靠的点焊机。可靠的点焊机的存在,但电动自行车电池的工厂使用的那些是非常昂贵的...

一个简单的7S / 3P包,通过使用Vruzend端盖系统制成。

The original kit was based out of India, and now…there is now a US-based dealer in Florida…which is managed by Micah Toll.

I thoroughly approve of two colors being used for the end-caps. I would have preferred using black for the negative ends (instead of blue), but…RED is ALWAYS the positive. If you do not use red for the positive, you should be dragged outside and whipped with a handful of wet spaghetti noodles.

如果您认为这个工具包是一个给你,我建议你做一定也订购5.5毫米螺母驱动器,他们可以提供。这是一个奇怪的大小。如果他们问我的意见,我会指定了使用上的螺母6毫米扳手(这是更为常见的)螺栓和螺栓应该是黄铜。据我所知,许多全球客户对价格敏感,每一分钱计数,但是......它们可以生产两个版本,一个负担得起“的低放”版本,和更昂贵的“高放”版本。

If you wish to experiment with a copper foil overlay to increase the safe amp-carrying capabilities of these contactors, I recommend that your initial experiments use 0.25mm thick copper foil (also called, 10-mil, or 30-ga)

如果该套件吸引你,您可以通过点击链接查看他们的网站,在这里


西

I bought one box of these to test, and I am impressed. They are similar to other kits, but there are two differences that interested me. First, the electrical contact and the spring that holds the contact against the cell-end are two separate elements. This means the spring can be made from a material that is perfect for a long term application of tension.

在西电池系统建设

Second, since the spring and contact are two different materials, the contact can be made from copper (and pure copper is a great conductor, but a horrible material for a spring). The Nishi contacts are zinc-plated for corrosion protection, and I have sanded the plating off of several samples to verify that the contacts are indeed copper. The width and thickness of the strip has the same cross-section as 13-ga copper wire, so it can handle temporary occasional current peaks of 15A, which means it will work for my favorite ebike cell, the Samsung 30Q.

The fully assembled 18650 cell and Nishi end-caps are 75.5mm / 3-inches tall.

The materials shown off to the left in the pic above are 1/4-inch plywood, and 1/4-inch HDPE kitchen cutting board. Either one would make good side-panels to hold and protect a pack made from the Nishi pack-building system. These caps also connect side-by-side using splines on their sides that interlock.


Battery Blocs

“电池集团”的广告似乎表明,他们觉得他们最好的客户群是DIY“特斯拉墙”领域的不断扩大。我的意思是......如果你有经济实惠的18650个细胞的来源,你可以组装一个巨大的电池组在你的车库墙上,以便安装,并且它可以从一个被充电)的太阳能电池板,而你是在工作,还是...... B)您可以使用“电墙”作为备份,因为你住的地方电网是不可靠的,而且......你把它从电网充电......而你在半夜充电,当成本较低。

四12P子组配置为4S / 12P电池组。

这里有一个电池阵营10P试剂盒模块的组件。

“电池阵营”系统具有各种各样的尺寸为每个18650电池并联模块的。一个有趣的特点是,他们使用一个长塑料螺栓两端连接。因为18650电池的整个侧面是带负电有趣的是。虽然交换,在一个共同的钢栓将不触及罐的两侧,所需的压缩量足够低,一个塑料螺栓是可以接受的,而且增加的安全始终是一个很好的设计目标(如果您的电池是参与崩溃)。

The most noteworthy feature of this kit is that…they use asmall-but-strongneodymium “button” magnet as the connector to each cell-end. These magnets are mostly composed of steel, so…they are not good for high amps. This is not any issue for a very large “low-amps-per-cell” Power Walls. However, if you want to use these for the battery of a a longtail cargobike, upgrading the amp-capacity of the connections may involve adding a copper foil ribbon in-between the magnet and cell-tips (for initial experiments, you might consider using 0.25mm thick, 10-mil / 30-ga copper sheet).

Battery Bloc kits are available in a variety of configurations (4P, 6P, 8P, etc), so take your time shopping to see if these would work for you.You can find their website by clicking on the link, here


Energus

The Energus company makes modules very similar to the NESE modules at the top of this article. However, they prefer to produce complete modules, which already have the cells inserted. As such, you must specify which cell you want inside the module (max amps, max range…or something in-between). and they also have a “plug and play” wiring harness available for the BMS, if you want.

一个8P模块的图形,并且也是5P模块,作为一个例子。

Energus似乎也宣传他们的套件大型固定应用,如太阳能蓄电。

如果你喜欢这些,their website can be found, here


Ann Power

A reader sent me this link to “Ann Power” in China. The Chinese “ebay” is called Aliexpress. Sometimes you can get a good deal on there, and sometimes you get ripped off, but…it exists.

The brass threaded insert seen below only holds the nickel bus-plate onto all the cells in that group while you are spot-welding them, and then the bolts hold a copper sheet over the nickel to help increase the conductivity and lower current resistance.

黑色塑料条滑入插槽两侧持有对准一切

The Ann Power battery pack building system


More?

如果您知道其他电池组建筑套件,与我联系,我会检查出来。如果它看起来像的东西,一个ebiker可以使用,我将它添加到这个列表。


由Ron采写/ spinningmagnets,2017年6月

在加利福尼亚州洛杉矶,从1977年至1981年/美国圣迭戈海军潜艇机械师长大。在1980年的液压技工/洛杉矶。重型设备操作员在1990年/前往不同地点。自卸车司机在2000年代/ SW犹他州。目前,由于2010 / NW堪萨斯州水厂运营商


12 Comments

  1. Love the information

  2. 你也三维模从图瓦(法国产品)试剂盒。
    http://www.tyva-energie.com/en/moduloo-en/home.html

  3. “事实上,镍是不是一个伟大的指挥家”嗯,你的意思是,在未来的日期和时间的时候,我们发现超导体,或2017年至今,其中镍是地球上最好的电导体中的一个,其实更好than copper, which itself is key to all the world’s electronics? Can you explain that statement please???

    • 感谢您的答复。尼克尔斯IACS电导率大致22/100相比铜板100/100。使用铜作为总线材料的问题是,铜容易被氧化(产生棕色涂层,该涂层的电阻),这是不好的压力触点。此外,它是非常困难的点焊到18650电池的电池的端部,这是典型的镀镍钢。

      铜是这样一个伟大的指挥家,它不get very hot when you pass spot-welding current through it. The resistance of nickel is why it gets hot so easily with a spot-welder. Nickel must reach roughly 2600F in a tiny spot to melt onto the cell-end, and it must do that very fast before any heat can migrate down into the cell.

      该组的特征意味着镍为低电流的可接受的导体,但对于...高电流,它产生了一个瓶颈,并在总线长度的可测量的电压降。在吹风机使用的加热元件“镍铬合金”丝,镍和铬的组合,因为它们从当前创建了大量的热量,并且还热时抗蚀剂腐蚀的线圈。

      大电流充电式工具用铜母线,但他们镀镍他们做点焊更容易,也为耐腐蚀性。只要电镀材料较薄,锌和锡也便宜和可用的防腐蚀选项,只要不伤害性。然而,对于一个点焊包可能的最佳选择是镀镍的铜。

      Tesla uses a thick aluminum bus-plate, but their fuse-wires use a high-speed ultra-sonic vibration technique to bond the connections on the bus and the cell-ends. Also, they use so many cells (thousands per car) that they get very high pack-amps while only drawing low amps from each cell. They chose aluminum for the bus-plates because it was lighter and stiffer than copper.

      As to the cost of materials, copper is less expensive than nickel, but the plating process costs money, so…nickel-plated copper costs more than pure nickel (even though the volume of nickel-plating material is very small).

  4. Rank Metal
    1银
    2铜
    3 gold
    4 aluminum
    5锌
    6 nickel
    7个黄铜
    8 bronze
    9 tin
    10 platinum
    11 carbon steel
    12导
    13 stainless steel

  5. 谢谢for a great article!

    你觉得下面的办法是什么?https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:2668159

    A guy there uses brass standoffs as contacts.

  6. 大Infor的,谢谢。所以,你知道任何修复在洛杉矶附近/电动自行车电池的?

  7. This is the best list I’ve seen so far for battery pack terminals/connectors, i hope it’s updated and expanded as time goes on!!! thanks Ron

  8. Any chance you could update the article – with a focus on individual cell fusing options. Seems that bonded fuse wires are the way Tesla and Luna are going. And when I looked at A123 prismatics a while back they had a fuse integral to the tab on each cell. I like the Vruzen approach but the user has to modify the design with his own bus structure to add cell fuses. Some say they aren’t required for ‘new’ match cells – but don’t they all become unmatached ‘old’ cells over time.
    For the hobbyist there has to be a ‘better’ option ???
    谢谢
    丹尼斯

  9. I see no way to order. I am looking for a parts list to order from.

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