DIY 18650-cell battery-pack building KITS, five options for 2018

2017年6月21日
74508点意见

Recently, we have seen several kits for assembling a battery pack out of 18650 cells. Here are some examples, so you can see if that is something that might interest you. And remember, these aren’t just for ebikes, you can assemble any voltage or size you want, for any job you need a battery to power.


The Original Gangster, Headway

该班次公司生产使用的锂铁磷酸盐的化学(磷酸铁),其每单元的标称提供3.2V的圆柱形电池。他们是著名的另一件事是,他们的电池在出厂时对电池两端的双头螺栓。此外,他们的网站提供的所有部件组装一组...包括预切割的金属总线板,和方形塑料端盖。不知何时开始,但我写了那篇关于使用这些早在2013年建立的文章,所以组装一包的这个例子中自那时以来一直围绕,至少是。

Headway pack building kit

海德威包建包。示出的模块是8S / 2P

Since this is clearly awesome (because you don’t have to solder or buy a spot-welder), then…why aren’t they more common?

Headway cells don’t come in a variety of sizes (there are only two), and the smallest one is the 38140. This means that they are 38mm in diameter and 120mm long…and that, my friend?…that is BIG. The 38120 cell is 10-Ah for one cell, so a 2P pack would be 20-Ah. Although 20-Ah is a good size of pack (that I very much approve of), the only shapes you can configure them in is usually a big fat rectangle.

To give you an idea about how large the “small” Headway cells are, here is a reproduction of a vintage boardtracker from Juicer ebikes. The Headway cells are the blue cylinders that make up the V-twin cylinders.

Our friend teklektik built up一个浴霸世界报长尾cargobike早在2012年,这些细胞,plus the“榨汁机”板跟踪电动自行车使用了38120,and also, here isa pic of a pack that was assembled to replace a 24V lead-acid pack on an electric wheelchair


弥收费的包建设的Kickstarter

我们很高兴写弥的Kickstarter的活动。He realized that there were a lot of battery pack builders who didn’t want to buy a spot welder (commonly $300 or more for a very basic unit), but many of the home-builders were comfortable making the series connections with a fat wire and a soldering iron.

Micah Toll’s DIY battery pack building kit

His idea was to provide paralleled modules of 18650 cells that had been spot-welded together. That way, there was no danger of the home-builder damaging the cells from the heat of a large soldering iron.We wrote an article on the internal construction of an 18650 cell的,我们发现,在正阴极可以采取大量的热量,但18650电池的负阳极是热损伤非常敏感。米迦的方法意味着房屋建筑将是焊接线到镍总线板,而不是直接在细胞上的提示。

尽管海地文职支助团系统是真棒,一些客户可能需要使用不同的细胞,或...也许他们想并联模块的不同的自定义配置...


Damien Rene pack-building spot-weld article

达米恩刘若英是在西班牙的电动自行车发烧友。我们的一个最一贯流行的文章是关于如何在一个he builds spot-welded battery packs for ebikes, found here。话虽这么说,最基本的点焊单元则可以从中国直接购买是SUNKKO 709A,它可以为大约$ 300在2017年被发现,即使为“合格”为模式,你可以在google搜索“SUNKKO失败”,并找到如何修复讨论线程和升级设备上的胆量。

从18650个细胞家用电动自行车内置电池

有18650细胞点焊模型比SUNKKO 709A更强大和可靠的,但是......他们的成本也超过$ 300。


Generic 18650 Plastic Cell Separators / Spacers

在很长一段时间,也一直存在一个塑料端盖设计,帮助包建设者组装包。在细胞上的顶部的“时隙”是一个8mm宽巷,其通常填充有纯镍的采用7mm宽带(镍总线色带即o.15mm或0.20毫米厚是最常见的)。

因为我发现,当我正在研究的18650格式的单元结构的文章,认为双方每18650细胞的底部是一个连续的导体(即:侧面和电池的底是带负电荷的)。这意味着…these plastic end-caps are very important。Vibration over the years can break through the PVC insulation-sleeve that comes over the sides of the cells, and a break right there will allow a short-circuit near the positive end.

靠近电池的正负极的肩部区域是“危险地带”,并达成妥协有东西,我称之为“肩短”(用白圈结束时,在PIC下文)。这是非常有益的自粘合纤维绝缘垫圈添加到正端,并使用某种类型的塑料端盖的。

xxx

The common style of plastic end-cap

一旦你决定塑料端盖的可用模型,你怎么连接串联和并联每个单元?下面的PIC是一个共同的2S / 4P总线板。在该PIC,在镍母板上的四个垂直通路携带高系列电流。如果这些是10A细胞,然后四个垂直运行中的每一个进行,每10A,总共40A的整个包。

两个水平的途径携带并联电流,这仅因为它们充放电保持单元以相等的电压。它通常将小于图1A中,即使对于非常高功率的电池组。的唯一原因串联和并联通路具有相同的宽度和厚度上总线板的这种共同的风格,是... ...这样做使得快速和容易的激光切割的形状,并且所述镍是刚性的,足以增加一些结构刚性所得到的包。

To be clear, if you are charging your pack with a 5A charger, that 5-Amps is charging “in series” too, so…the parallel connections will only carry a tiny amount of balancing current, under all charging and discharging conditions.

xxx

A 2S /4P battery pack series / parallel bus-plate. The top row of cells have their positive ends up, and the bottom row of four has the negative ends up…Remember! the entire sides of all 18650 cells are charged with the negative end. That is why battery pack builders add the dark gray felt washers to the positive ends! (seen on the top row). The slot above each cell helps the spot-welding to be more consistent at a lower energy level. If the current can simply pass across the nickel strip, very little energy passes through the cell-end to weld them to the nickel bus, so it takes much higher energy levels, and results in much more heat than necessary.

In fact, nickel is not a great conductor. It is only used for two main reasons. I ‘would’ state that it has very strong anti-corrosion characteristics, but…nickel-plating over copper bus-plates [or aluminum] has the same corrosion protection, and that composition would conduct better and costs less (nickel is expensive, and getting pricier each year). The first reason is that…pure nickel is stiff, and provides some structural strength, while copper or aluminum is malleable (soft and easily bendable).

The second reason is that pure nickel [as a bus material] will spot-weld quite easily and very fast, which helps the assembly-line move along rapidly. Although many packs are still spot-welded in China one cell at a time by a person, the trend is to have robots spot-weld a pack together very rapidly.

注意坐落在每个单元格的位置the pic above. Electrical current-flow will take the “path of least resistance”, and that means that…if you include a slot over the cell, then the majority of the spot-welding electrical pulse is forced to pass through the end of the cell, instead of just passing through the bus-plate (from one welding probe to the other), which is what would happen if the nickel ribbon did not have that slot. This provides a more consistent result, when spot-welding cells to bus-plates.

Personally, I am a fan of the “honeycomb” configuration, over the now common rectangular “rank and file” shape (shown above). For roughly the same volume of battery pack, the honeycomb layout provides more air-flow between each cell. Whether you are trusting in passive heat-shedding, or a pro-active fan-cooling system…if you have a more consistent air-flow envelope around each cell? It will help each cell to shed any of the heat that develops.


NESE模块,从Agniusm

The endless-sphere forum member “Agniusm” is a very smart enthusiast from Lithuania. I am posting his “NESE” modules first because…the 6P modules have been tested at 80A (13A per cell), and the bus-strips only warmed to 30C / 86F.

这里是一个4P模块(四个单元并行地)。您可以指定一个密闭的容器中强调耐水性,或帮助一个镂空容器散出的热量。

This business model recognizes that any new clever design can be copied and produced very cheaply in China, so…rather than create the modules himself and ship them around the world…he provides the design code for free, so each builder can have them produced locally from a 3D printer service. The difficult part that he does provide for the customers is…the metal 6P bus-plates, which can be trimmed-down to fit in any of the other sizes of case, along with the Poron foam backing (6P, 5P, 4P, 3P, 2P, etc).

模块的大小是由用于将设计文件中确定的3D-打印它,并且颜色是由三维打印机上使用的塑料长丝确定。

The metal bus-tabs are 0.60mm thick (0.023 inches), and they are made from copper, and then zinc-plated for anti-corrosion protection (the early version shown below is a shiny nickel-plate, but the nickel cracked when the bus-tab end-tab is bent in order to mate with the connector-screw, so now…the plating is zinc). The most common nickel ribbon that is spot-welded to commercial packs are 0.20mm thick, so…these are three times thicker and also made from copper.

充当导体此峰示出了金属总线条到小区端部连接。细黑背衬是PORON泡沫,这有助于保持总线后面的压力。还要注意,被插入到塑料槽中的方形金属螺母,从而使连接螺钉有一些固体附加到。这种设计安排被称为“固定螺母”。我彻底批准被插入3D印刷塑料外壳圈养正方形金属坚果。

Since there will be a minor amount of heat-expansion / cold-contraction…some type of “spring” needs to be used to take up any slack, so the electrical connection is maintained with a consistent compression pressure. These modules use a thin black “Poron” elastomer backing to maintain pressure against the bus-strip. I was skeptical at first, but my research verifies that Poron is an excellent long-term material to use in this application.

下面示出了两个模块被并联,以增加安培小时,在剩余的4.1V而当完全充电的照片(每个细胞4.1V要好得多,使用寿命长,相比于普通4.2V)。下面所示的4P版本具有三个径向槽,使一个方便的地方键一对具有拉链关系模块。

Here are two 4P modules configured as an 8P group. The black “zip tie” shown is an easy and affordable way to attach several modules together.

Here is a pic (below), showing a “crosswise” assembly, this pic shows a “10 modules in Series” (10S) pack, which is generally considered to be 36V. If you were using these 6P modules with 3500-mAh cells, the pack shown would be (6 X 3.5 =) 21-Ah.

Beneath the orange 3D-printed protective insulating caps, these modules shown below are connected positive-to-negative in order to “series” them into the desired voltage. Do your home work, and exercise caution!

An example of a 10S / 6P pack when using these 3D-printed plastic modules.

有许多DIY选项,并且在下面的PIC中所示的包装的例子是一个“纵向”组件。

下面是这些模块中的一个纵向取向的例子。示出的包是16S / 6P

你可以找到他的这些3D打印模块的网站,在这里


Vruzend Kit

The Vruzend kit adds plastic cell-end caps to each end of a cell, and each cap has a metal contact inside, along with a tiny bolt that extends out to create a threaded stud for attaching bus strips.

The standard Vruzend plastic end-cap set from India.

这样可以启发它以前的风格,每个盖帽对他们的边槽和突起,可以连接到对方。

Here is an example of the “configurability” of this style.

下面示出了一个PIC帽Vruzend剖开,与金属接触已被除去以显示其精确形状。这是一种“抗腐蚀”不锈钢制成,并且它作为一个“板簧”具有“C”形。它还执行的是所述导体的占空比,所以这些被限制为每个3.5A。未来的版本可能有铜箔覆盖,以提供更高的放大器版本,但那些尚未公布。

Vruzend细胞端盖的基本模型。

As you can see, this makes assembling a pack out of 18650-format cells much easier, compared to soldering (which can damage the interior of the cell from too much heat), or…using an expensive and unreliable spot-welder. Reliable spot-welders exist, but the ones that ebike battery factories use are very expensive…

一个简单的7S / 3P包,通过使用Vruzend端盖系统制成。

The original kit was based out of India, and now…there is now a US-based dealer in Florida…which is managed by Micah Toll.

I thoroughly approve of two colors being used for the end-caps. I would have preferred using black for the negative ends (instead of blue), but…RED is ALWAYS the positive. If you do not use red for the positive, you should be dragged outside and whipped with a handful of wet spaghetti noodles.

如果您认为这个工具包是一个给你,我建议你做一定也订购5.5毫米螺母驱动器,他们可以提供。这是一个奇怪的大小。如果他们问我的意见,我会指定了使用上的螺母6毫米扳手(这是更为常见的)螺栓和螺栓应该是黄铜。据我所知,许多全球客户对价格敏感,每一分钱计数,但是......它们可以生产两个版本,一个负担得起“的低放”版本,和更昂贵的“高放”版本。

If you wish to experiment with a copper foil overlay to increase the safe amp-carrying capabilities of these contactors, I recommend that your initial experiments use 0.25mm thick copper foil (also called, 10-mil, or 30-ga)

If this kit appeals to you,you can view their website by clicking on the link, here


Nishi

I bought one box of these to test, and I am impressed. They are similar to other kits, but there are two differences that interested me. First, the electrical contact and the spring that holds the contact against the cell-end are two separate elements. This means the spring can be made from a material that is perfect for a long term application of tension.

在西电池系统建设

第二,由于弹簧和接触是两种不同的材料,所述接触可以由铜制成(和纯铜是一个伟大的导体,但对于弹簧上的可怕材料)。在西触点镀锌防腐蚀,我已经磨光电镀过的几个样本,以验证接触确实是铜。条带的宽度和厚度具有相同的横截面为13 GA铜线,所以它可以处理15A的临时偶尔电流峰值,这意味着它将用于我喜欢的电动自行车电池,三星30Q工作。

完全组装的18650细胞和西端盖是75.5毫米/ 3英寸高。

The materials shown off to the left in the pic above are 1/4-inch plywood, and 1/4-inch HDPE kitchen cutting board. Either one would make good side-panels to hold and protect a pack made from the Nishi pack-building system. These caps also connect side-by-side using splines on their sides that interlock.


Battery Blocs

The advertising for “Battery Blocs” seems to indicate that they feel their best customer base is the expanding field of DIY “Tesla Walls”. By that I mean…if you have a source of affordable 18650 cells, you can assemble a huge battery pack to mount in your garage wall, and it can be charged from either A) solar panels while you are at work, or…B) You use the “Power Wall” as a back-up because you live where the grid is unreliable, and…you keep it charged from the grid… while you charge it in the middle of the night, when the cost is lower.

四12P子组配置为4S / 12P电池组。

Here are the components of a Battery Bloc 10P kit module.

“电池阵营”系统具有各种各样的尺寸为每个18650电池并联模块的。一个有趣的特点是,他们使用一个长塑料螺栓两端连接。因为18650电池的整个侧面是带负电有趣的是。虽然交换,在一个共同的钢栓将不触及罐的两侧,所需的压缩量足够低,一个塑料螺栓是可以接受的,而且增加的安全始终是一个很好的设计目标(如果您的电池是参与崩溃)。

该试剂盒的最显着的特点是......他们使用small-but-strong钕“按钮”磁体作为连接器连接到每个电池端。这些磁铁主要由钢制成,所以,就不是好高安培。这不是一个非常大的“低安培的每单元”电源墙的任何问题。However, if you want to use these for the battery of a a longtail cargobike, upgrading the amp-capacity of the connections may involve adding a copper foil ribbon in-between the magnet and cell-tips (for initial experiments, you might consider using 0.25mm thick, 10-mil / 30-ga copper sheet).

Battery Bloc kits are available in a variety of configurations (4P, 6P, 8P, etc), so take your time shopping to see if these would work for you.You can find their website by clicking on the link, here


Energus

The Energus company makes modules very similar to the NESE modules at the top of this article. However, they prefer to produce complete modules, which already have the cells inserted. As such, you must specify which cell you want inside the module (max amps, max range…or something in-between). and they also have a “plug and play” wiring harness available for the BMS, if you want.

一个8P模块的图形,并且也是5P模块,作为一个例子。

Energus似乎也宣传他们的套件大型固定应用,如太阳能蓄电。

If you like these,their website can be found, here


安电源

A reader sent me this link to “Ann Power” in China. The Chinese “ebay” is called Aliexpress. Sometimes you can get a good deal on there, and sometimes you get ripped off, but…it exists.

The brass threaded insert seen below only holds the nickel bus-plate onto all the cells in that group while you are spot-welding them, and then the bolts hold a copper sheet over the nickel to help increase the conductivity and lower current resistance.

黑色塑料条滑入插槽两侧持有对准一切

在安动力电池组系统建设


More?

如果您知道其他电池组建筑套件,与我联系,我会检查出来。如果它看起来像的东西,一个ebiker可以使用,我将它添加到这个列表。


由Ron采写/ spinningmagnets,2017年6月

Grew up in Los Angeles California, US Navy submarine mechanic from 1977-81/SanDiego. Hydraulic mechanic in the 1980's/Los Angeles. Heavy equipment operator in the 1990's/traveled to various locations. Dump truck driver in the 2000's/SW Utah. Currently a water plant operator since 2010/NW Kansas


12条评论

  1. Love the information

  2. 你也三维模从图瓦(法国产品)试剂盒。
    http://www.tyva-energie.com/en/moduloo-en/home.html

  3. “事实上,镍是不是一个伟大的指挥家”嗯,你的意思是,在未来的日期和时间的时候,我们发现超导体,或2017年至今,其中镍是地球上最好的电导体中的一个,其实更好than copper, which itself is key to all the world’s electronics? Can you explain that statement please???

    • 感谢您的答复。尼克尔斯IACS电导率大致22/100相比铜板100/100。使用铜作为总线材料的问题是,铜容易被氧化(产生棕色涂层,该涂层的电阻),这是不好的压力触点。此外,它是非常困难的点焊到18650电池的电池的端部,这是典型的镀镍钢。

      铜是这样一个伟大的指挥家,它不get very hot when you pass spot-welding current through it. The resistance of nickel is why it gets hot so easily with a spot-welder. Nickel must reach roughly 2600F in a tiny spot to melt onto the cell-end, and it must do that very fast before any heat can migrate down into the cell.

      That set of characteristics means that nickel is an acceptable conductor for low currents, but…for high currents, it creates a bottleneck, and a measurable voltage drop across the bus length. The heating elements in a hair-dryer use a coil of “NiChrome” wire, a combination of nickel and chromium, because they create a lot of heat from current, and also resist corrosion when hot.

      大电流充电式工具用铜母线,但他们镀镍他们做点焊更容易,也为耐腐蚀性。只要电镀材料较薄,锌和锡也便宜和可用的防腐蚀选项,只要不伤害性。然而,对于一个点焊包可能的最佳选择是镀镍的铜。

      Tesla uses a thick aluminum bus-plate, but their fuse-wires use a high-speed ultra-sonic vibration technique to bond the connections on the bus and the cell-ends. Also, they use so many cells (thousands per car) that they get very high pack-amps while only drawing low amps from each cell. They chose aluminum for the bus-plates because it was lighter and stiffer than copper.

      As to the cost of materials, copper is less expensive than nickel, but the plating process costs money, so…nickel-plated copper costs more than pure nickel (even though the volume of nickel-plating material is very small).

  4. Rank Metal
    1 silver
    2 copper
    3 gold
    4铝
    5锌
    6镍
    7 brass
    8 bronze
    9 tin
    10 platinum
    11碳钢
    12 lead
    13 stainless steel

  5. 谢谢for a great article!

    你觉得下面的办法是什么?https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:2668159

    A guy there uses brass standoffs as contacts.

  6. Great infor, thank you. So you know of anyone repairing ebike batteries near/in Los Angeles.?

  7. 这是迄今为止我所见过的电池组端子/连接器的最佳名单,我希望这是更新和扩大随着时间的推移!感谢罗恩

  8. 任何机会,你可以更新文章 - 侧重于单个细胞融合选项。看来,保税保险丝配线是特斯拉和月神会的方式。当我看着A123 prismatics而回,他们有一个保险丝积分在每个单元上的标签。我喜欢Vruzen的做法,但用户必须修改设计用自己的总线结构,以增加细胞保险丝。有人说,他们是不需要“新”匹配的细胞 - 但他们不都成为unmatached“老”细胞随着时间的推移。
    For the hobbyist there has to be a ‘better’ option ???
    谢谢
    Dennis

  9. I see no way to order. I am looking for a parts list to order from.

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