I grew up in earthquake country (Los Angeles), and now I live in tornado country. Well…it now seems like we are all living in VIRUS country, so let’s have a chat about preparations for the next big thing.
Ebikes in Disasters
Now I live only 12 miles from work. I don’t waste a lot of time driving each day, I don’t waste a lot of money on gas, and my car will last many years longer due to putting fewer miles on it. And, one of the great things is that…if my car ever breaks down, I can ride a bicycle to work. Plus,ever since the year 2009, the bike in question has had an electric motor。我可能无法承受一个英航第二辆车ck-up, but anyone who truly wants an ebike badly enough, can save up to get an electric bike. In fact, I only have a one-car garage, but right now I have a car plus TWO electric bikes.
And don’t forget, if gas prices skyrocket, or there is a temporary disruption in the supply chain of gasoline…I can still get to work just fine on my ebike (you can buy solar panels if you want, but…you cannot buy a DIY gasoline refinery). Yes sir, living close to work is a MAJOR benefit.
48V and 52V EBIKE batteries when the power goes out
This is something that is not talked about often enough. Whether it’s earthquakes, tornadoes, or a hurricane like Katrina/Maria…you can count on the power being out for days, if not weeks. Now, I’m not talking about running a central air-conditioning system (which is a well-known monster watt-hog), but…if all you need is to run your TV, your laptop, or charge your phone,一个电动自行车的电池可以做到这一点了相当长的时间，如果它是一个48V或52V。
There are inverters that will convert the DC current from a 48V/52V ebike battery into 120V AC to run your household devices. Another type of Inverter can be found in a used UPS (Uninterrupted Power Supply). This is a device that is plugged in-between the wall socket and a device such as a computer. If the power from the grid goes out, the UPS has a battery inside plus an integrated inverter that will instantly switch over, so that your computer never goes off, which could cause a huge amount of havoc if its being used for a business.
这些UPS的通常在任12V，24V，48V或操作......然后...... 48V的版本将在输入电压高达60V的工作。一14S / 52V电动自行车包是58.8V电池完全充满，所以这对我们来说真的很幸运。他们在许多大小（以安培他们可以提供的量）也产生了。
One of my inverters is rated for around 2500VA (a “VA” means Volt/Amp, and it is similar to a “watt”, but calculated differently. So, 2500VA is almost exactly 2500W).
A large refrigerator might draw a short peak of 2000W on start-up, but then it will likely draw less than 800W when the compressor is running, and be aware that the compressor only “comes on” once in a while if you don’t open the door very often during a temporary crisis. Plus, if you live where power outages happen frequently, I’d recommend buying a chest style of fridge, since cold air sinks. This means a top-opening chest fridge/freezer will keep the vital items colder for much longer than a common stand-up door-style of fridge.
其他变频器我买是明纬TS-1500-148A。Here is the part-number code: TS=true sine wave, 1500W, 1=120VAC output, 48=48V input-63V max, A=USA sockets
The cheaper inverters are usually a “square wave”, so the current that they put out is kind of “buzzy”, which can screw with sensitive electronics. I made sure to get a “sine wave” unit, so it can run anything without any problems.
消毒洗手液, TP, and Clean water
消毒洗手液was the hottest item initially. Even though you can wash your hands with soap and water at home, people still had to go to the ATM to get cash, or use the keypad at the store when you get groceries (or the gas station). All of those interfaces are filthy with germs, and my wife has always kept a small bottle of hand sanitizer in the car, for those occasions where we had to touch something dirty, and there was no way to wash our hands with soap and water. Thank goodness she is a hypochondriac germophobe…
As a side note, a disinfecting solution of 70% alcohol works with an “excellent” rating. Anything lower than 60%, and the solution would be too weak. Higher than 80%, and it actually works worse due to chemical reasons involving cell membranes. It’s important to note thatmethanolis a poor disinfectant, and the alcohols you want are eitherethanol(the kind that is in booze) or propanol, which is found in异“rubbing” alcohol.
I immediately got on the internet to find out if there were any alternatives for hand-sanitizer, and…you can make it out of“的EverClear”，这是95％的乙醇（在逃白酒供应商找到）。当然，接下来的时间有一个病毒爆发和洗手液已经卖完了，精明的人就会开始寻找的EverClear的任何物资。要知道，你需要添加1/4量vegetable-glycerin or aloe-vera gel为了使产品更厚，少水样，同时还造成了70％“酒度” / ABV solution.
TP没有到期日，所以我在存储始终保持了几卷，所以我没有意外运行到店，如果我发现我跑低。然而，这是被打的最难的遍布全国的一个项目。It’s odd, because the companies that make TP are not going out of business, and as soon as the initial rush is over, most stores will start getting more shipments in (trust me, the factories are working overtime and raking-in the profits). That being said…
Something that is common in Europe is a device called a “Bidet” (bee-DAY). For lack of a better phrase, let’s just say that it’s a hose that washes off your anus. You might still “want” to use TP to dry your rear, but you’d likely use less, and when TP is sold out, being “all out of TP” would not be an emergency.
饮用水。我还注意到，瓶装水从商店的第一个星期囤积（尽管他们进行了重新摆放相当快）。我理解的关注，如果它是一个事件刚刚发生地震，龙卷风或飓风之后（这有时会导致一个地下水管“破发”），但...自来水需要放心饮用（它们添加氯杀germs), and a viral outbreak by itself would not affect the municipal water plant’s ability to operate.
That being said, I live in a town where the water is “hard” (it has a lot of dissolved minerals in it). It is definitely safe, but it tastes bad. As a result, just about every coffee brewing machine at work has a charcoal-purifying water jug next to it, to improve the taste and smell.
The most common brands seems to be布丽塔and PUR, but…if they use activated charcoal, any brand will do, because they are all the same. The one great tip I’d like to share is that you can buy big bags of activated charcoal “sand” very cheaply from an aquarium supply.木炭是由在密封容器中加热木材位产生, so no oxygen can reach it, which would cause combustion, which would then result in a pile of ash…The heat of putting a fire under the steel container will drive off almost all of the elements in the cellulose, except the carbon。
When the resulting carbon chunks are crushed into grains (to increase the surface area), that form of carbon can purify water very well, by soaking the water in it overnight. However, you can also run a simple chemical process on charcoal to make it “activated” charcoal (google it, or search youtube). Activated charcoal is much more pure and has more surface area on a microscopic level. This means it will react more strongly, to purify water very fast.
Also, don’t forget the old standby of boiling tap-water for ten minutes, then letting it cool. Boiling tap-water and then passing it through charcoal is about as safe as anybody can make water during a disaster.
N95 MASKS (plus R95’s and P100’s)
As an example, before this 2020 “Covid-19” crisis (2019冠状病毒病），一个N95口罩出售每个大致1 $，以及约$ 8销售的P100掩模。如果你决不expose your masks to an oily vapor, then the letter designation (N, P, R) really shouldn’t matter when using it for anti-disease protection.
如果供应商是N95口罩了，要知道，他们仍然可能有一些R95 and P100 masksin stock, which are even better.A HEPA filter-cloth uses the same filtering material as a P100 mask（所有颗粒的99.9％下降到0.3微米）。
In the pic above, one of the major differences between an N95 and a P100 mask is that the P100 has a better face-seal. You could replicate this type of seal by cutting off the stretchy thin rubber cuff from the sleeve of a dishwashing glove, and then making one slice lengthwise to end up with a flat square sheet of very thin rubber. Cut a breathing hole in the middle, and then bond it to the edges of the mask. You could even attach a layer of weather-strip foam under the seal, if desired.
当前危机之前,没有短缺of any type of face mask. At that time, they were considered disposable. Doctors and nurses would use it when seeing a patient with a wet-cough,and then just throw it awaywhen they went to the next patient. However, this current critical shortage means that the NationalCenter for Disease Control (CDC) has issued guidelines for disinfecting used masks so they can be reused dozens of times(click here for that document）。有些方法可以通过你在自己家里使用，让你的面罩供气持续更长的时间。
紫外线。UV-C辐射常常用于消毒病房，但即使你能找到一个UV-C灯泡，我不推荐这个。一个技术人员将放置几个UV-C光站在一间病房，那么技术将关闭色调和leave the room。如果你看一个UV-C灯泡仅需几分钟时间，当它打开时，它会给你的眼睛的内部一个“晒伤”。这会发生的至少是痛苦的很多，而且最糟糕的是permanent blindness。The UV-A and UV-B bulbs do not kill germs, only a UV-C “Germicide” bulb.
MICROWAVE OVEN。This may actually work, except that these masks have an important bend-ablemetalstrip that is vital to forcing the top edge of the mask to conform to the shape of your nose-bridge. I tried microwaving mine, and the metal strip got so hot that it melted the plastic covering in about 5 seconds. If I could somehow bond a semi-rigid plastic nose-bridge shape to the outside (one that was shape-able to each individual nose), this might be worth coming back around to, as an option.
OZONE.Nobody seems to be pursuing this, so I can only assume that the other methods listed are easier and more cost-effective.
Vaporous Hydrogen Peroxide / H2O2。这是由疾病预防控制中心对医院的一项新的建议。验证测试设备是一个不锈钢机柜中举行架子上的N95口罩百，允许蒸汽环绕和穿透材料。曝光是经过两个小时的30％的H 2 O 2蒸气，然后4小时通风，以允许气味蒸发。此外，医院消毒大量时使用的蒸气（代替液浸）为了方便和节省成本的。即在药物存储在棕色瓶出售的过氧化氢是唯一的3％H 2 O 2，并且所有对液浸研究进行消毒用6％H 2 O 2。这些浸泡效果还不错，IF ...你可以找到6％H2O2。我怀疑是用普通液体3％过氧化氢会正常工作，如果浸泡5分钟，但我还没有发现任何测试结果。
空气干燥五天。Since a virus needs a warm moist environment to survive, simply setting the N95 mask in a cool/dry environment for a few days seems to be good enough. One test listed three days as adequate, but the CDC guidelines for hospitals is five days. They also specifically mentioned that a set group of masks shouldall be used by only one person。For instance, a nurse might only need five masks (using one a day), and that nurse should rotate through those five masks for up to a month or so, and never share them with any other nurse.
DRY HEAT。大多数医院已经有湿蒸汽消毒器，所以干热是它自己的类别。该Covid-19病毒在寒冷的气温相当强劲，并且似乎冻结何时进入某种“冬眠”的。然而，热火将杀死它。The latest information seems to indicate that if you heat any item to a minimum of 140F for 30 minutes, this will reliably kill this virus, and all other common viruses. Common steam-disinfection units often run at temps that are too high, because they might damage the N95 mask filtering cloth.Here is a link to the N95 materials breakdown(made from poly-propylene fibers).
The CDC now recommends heating to160F / 70℃30分钟。Be aware that higher temps than that will kill any virus faster, but…the Poly-Propylene filter-cloth material inside the N95 masks will be damaged in a particular way that reduces it’s effectiveness if heated to over 212F / 100C. We are recommending that your heat target for disinfecting N95 masks be held to160F (70C)。Be aware that these temps might damage some other elements on the mask, such as the elastic headbands (depending on materials used). The CDC recommendations have specifically mentioned the option of using the common hospital pediatric blanket-heating cabinets that are adjustable and rated for 167F / 75C max, as a readily available system.
ALCOHOL AT 70%。这里是一个链接,向你展示了如何把100 - proof vodka (50% ethanol), and remove just the right amount of dissolved waterto make it the ideal 70% ABV (Alcohol By Volume),by adding kosher salt过夜。Kosher salt is pure sodium chloride with no additives like iodine.
“Methanol” is NOT a good sterilizer, however the isopropyl “rubbing” alcohol found in drug stores will work for sterilization. Make sure it is the 70% ABV, and…if you can only find 91% ABV, dilute it with the appropriate amount of water. Some stores sell 50% ABV rubbing alcohol, but if the solution is 60% or less ABV, it will be too weak. However I was surprised to read that an ABV above 80% is also less effective at killing germs, so…shoot for 70%. Soak the mask for 30 minutes, and then set it in a well-ventilated place to dry. Be aware that during this process, the alcohol vapors will be flammable.
If I was sterilizing N95 masks for my own family to use (going to the grocery store?), I would primarily use a 70% alcohol liquid-immersion, or a dry 160F heat as an option. Also, for a reusable mask, I recommend a silicone-based elastomer for headbands due to their ability to resist heat, alcohol, and H2O2 during disinfection.
Plus, N95 masks “may or may not” come with a one-way exhale valve. Such a valve might be damaged by 160F dry heat sterilization, so test this before making a large volume purchase, or…get an N95 mask model with NO exhale check-valve, which is not needed for airborne virus protection.
The one area where N95 masks are weak is in the edge-seal to the face. Also, since the entire N95 face-cup is also the filtering material, you normally throw away the whole mask when the filtering part is contaminated by use.
Be aware that even though the most common half-face respirators are designed to use two disposable filters, that amount of filtering media is designed to last the average hazmat worker for an entire 12-hour shift. The reason they have TWO small filters instead of ONE large filter is so that each filter can be flatter. This allows the worker to stick their head into tight spaces, when needed. I mention this so you will understand that a DIY respirator only needs ONE filter to allow you to safely manage going to the grocery store and gas station during a pandemic.
The sudden shortage of half-face respirators has led to a boom in youtubes made by people using 3D-printers to make them at home for local hospitals. There are sooo many designs, so which one is the best? Well, opinions are like anuses that haven’t been cleaned by a bidet during a TP shortage…”everybody has one, and they all stink”. That being said, here’s MY opinion. (edit: The so-called “Montana mask” seems to be widely accepted by most hospitals by donated 3D-printer activists.点击查看详情)
而不是把钱花在无尽的寻找ore and more disposable masks, why not spend just a little bit more and get a mask that can be disinfected at home, and then reused hundreds of times?
My local Home-Depot/Lowes/Menards were all sold out of face-masks and respirators after the first week, BUT…they STILL had plenty of HEPA air-conditioning/furnace filters. Even if you aren’t able to disinfect and re-use these filters, one large AC filter has enough HEPA filtration material to make at least a dozen disposable masks. The design of a respirator is of course an important consideration, but before we start, I feel the most important thing is to use materials that will work with thedisinfecting methodsthat work for you. For instance, silicone works SO well in high heat, that we can actually buy bake-ware made of pure silicone (google “silicone bakeware”, go ahead, I’ll wait).
Now, I understand that very few people have a 3D printer, and some of the few who actually have one don’t always know how to use it. That being said, I still feel I need to address something. A good 3D printed respirator design has several distinct elements. The face-cup must be rigid or at least semi-rigid (the hard plastic part), so the straps have a form to pull against without distorting the edge. BUT, the edge must somehow mate to the shape of YOUR face.
The biggest design problem is that the shapes of our human faces have a lot of variation, so the face-cup edge NEEDS to be able to accept some type of thick foam seal, to help it conform to your particular face. A closed-cell type of foam is best (if you can find it), and it should be able to be disinfected with heat or chemicals (like silicone-based foam). My vote for a “best” plug-and-play respirator edge-foam is from the car industry and home weather-stripping for doors and windows (seen above).
Here is a link to the youtube video to the orange respirator shown above。The respirator part starts at the 3:00 minute mark. The edge flange looks as though it would easily allow attaching additional foam to improve the comfort and the quality of the seal. The strap attachment flanges in this design are shaped to accept a pin, and that allows wide straps to be used for comfort. The pic above shows metal paperclips being used as a V-shaped connector and rubber bands used as the head-straps.
I like how the filter is a large single unit in the front, and it iscircular(many current 3D designs have a small filter, or an odd shape). There is nothing wrong with using the stock filter housing as it is shown. However, a circular housing means you can use a simple hose-clamp to attach filter material over the opening. A square filter grid with a “snap-in” filter connection may wear out the snap-ridges over time. A circular housing shape has more long-lasting options.
edit: just found out that 3D-printed masks can be made from a filament called “TPU” (Thermo-plastic Poly-Urethane). It is much softer and more flexible than the common PLA or PET-G material often used in 3D prints. Of course, I wouldn’t even mention this if TPU couldn’t be sterilized and re-used by the wearer, and it certainly can be sterilized by alcohol, H2O2 and heat. (Click here for the details on the latest version of the Montana mask）。
Vitamin C, D, Zinc, and hydrogen Peroxide
Every winter is “flu season”, and it’s been speculated that with the weather being cold, dark, and rainy, most people are cooped-up indoors and in close proximity to each other. That might explain why the flu spreads faster in winter, but even so…people honestly seem to be more resistant to the flu in the warmer months (why?). A normal healthy person’s immune system seems to do better at fighting off all kinds of ailments in the warm months, and my research indicates that you can help your immune system fight better if your winter regimen adds extra Vitamin C, Vitamin D, and Zinc at a level that is above the “daily minimum”.
It may just be a coincidence that in the winter months, we eat less citrus fruit and peppers (Vitamin C), and we also get less sun (Vitamin D).Vitamin-Dis “fat soluble”, so it should be taken with food (some capsules are mixed with coconut-oil to ensure the vitamin-D can be absorbed fully, even if your stomach is empty). Your body associates vitamin-D with sunlight, so some people experience a disturbed sleep pattern when taking this as a supplement. You might consider taking the D in the first half of the day.
如果你breathe-in some air that somebody has recently coughed-out, the vapor droplets can land on the back of your throat where it takes a sharp 90-degree turn downwards. That is the perfect environment for germs and viruses to splat against, and then grow and multiply. There are several over-the-counter lozenges that contain zinc, and I have to admit that他们都味道不好。但是，每当我有某种流感在最近的过去，我已经开始服用锌含片每顿饭后，我让它才能慢慢溶解大衣我的嘴和咽喉上部与活性成分。他们很便宜，他们真正的帮助。
One more note, most people are not aware that the gum-line of your teeth is one of the places where a germ can travel from your filthy mouth directly into your bloodstream. If I have some kind of flu, I will go out of my way to brush my teeth, floss, and gargle with a very salty saltwater solution just before going to sleep (salt kills germs). Sometimes I even swish some 3% hydrogen peroxide around in my mouth, which tastes as bad as the zinc lozenges I mentioned earlier.
编辑：只是做了一些额外的Vitamin-Cresearch. Your intestines have a limited ability to absorb vitamin-C in a single dose, and that max dose is500mg every 4 hours。There has been experimentation with mega-doses of Vitamin-C, and the doctors used MANY times that dose, by using an intravenous feed (IV).
Generators in a Power Outage
Whether it’s an earthquake in California, a Tornado in Oklahoma, or a hurricane across the south coast…a power outage is a common problem. The local big-box hardware stores may stock a handful of generators, but他们都是满座mmediately。Most power outages don’t actually last very long, and quite often a person who has never used a generator before, will put it away for storage with gasoline in the tank and carburetor. Over time, that old gasoline will gel, and clog everything up.
First of all, whenever you put away a generator, lawn-mower, or a car for a long-term storage, you should run it completely dry of gasoline. That being said, it is not too difficult to take a gummed-up generator and clean out the carburetor and gas tank. However, if you haven’t bought one yet, here are some tips…
If a generator is gummed-up with old gas, it still will still run fine on methane.
对于一般的家庭，主人，你不会花的钱多余的量得到一个非常昂贵的柴油发电机。这使得普通3000W +汽油发电机能够运行你的冰箱，电视和灯。发电机应（在车库或可能以防止盗窃）被置于外，由于排气。此样式可以容易地转换到已管道输送到大多数家庭烹饪和加热的天然气（甲烷）的流失。美国有甲烷的储量深，这样就不会被任何时间很快用完。Here is a link to a youtube review of a $120 methane conversion。
然而，if you are like me and the only place you might use a generator as a power back-up,我推荐的燃料是汽油和甲烷。One specific benefit of using methane is that they start very easily in cold weather, which is beneficial in the northern states during the winter. Be aware that methane does not have as much power as gasoline, so if a 3000W gasoline generator will normally supply all of your needs, then…if you want to only run on methane, you might be better served by a 4000W+ generator.
FLASHLIGHTS。A few years ago I started seeing rechargeable flashlights that had the charger built into the housing. This meant that you didn’t have to remove the 18650 cell from the flashlight to stick it into a charger. After a while later, I started seeing designs that used a phone charger jack, instead of a proprietary jack. This means that where-ever I am, I can charge my flashlight up with my phone charger, which I already have in my car, my home, and at work.
Lower your debt, and keep some cash stored on-hand. Live close to work. Have some canned food and jugs of water handy. Buy a small propane barbecue. Own an ebike with a 48V/52V battery pack, and possibly an inverter. Maybe buy a generator, and a chest-style of freezer. Store some antiseptic gel and bandages. Buy some rechargeable LED flashlights that recharge from a 5V USB phone charger.